RET activation inhibits doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells.
Anticancer Res. 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4B):2019-25
Authors: Skinner MA, Lackey KE, Freemerman AJ
BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is generally resistant to chemotherapy and the frequent constitutive activation of RET (rearranged during transfection gene) in these tumors might inhibit drug-induced apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each RET isoform was separately expressed in SK-N-MC cells (neural crest-derived tumor) and the impact of RET activation on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was examined. RESULTS: The activation of RET9 and RET51 in the SK-N-MC cells significantly reduced the doxorubicin-induced apoptosis by 50%, compared to untreated cells. RET activation also induced phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular regulated kinase), but no changes in AKT (serine/threonine kinase) phosphorylation were noted. In the presence of a MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase inhibitor or a RET kinase inhibitor, the RET-activated/drug-treated cells displayed nearly 75% and 100% of the doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of the drug-treated cells without RET activation, respectively. CONCLUSION: In SK-N-MC cells, downstream activation of MAP kinase, by both RET9 and RET51, appears to mediate the majority of RET-dependent resistance to chemotherapeutically induced apoptosis. MTC might be rendered more responsive to chemotherapeutic agents by the co-administration of a RET kinase inhibitor.
PMID: 18751369 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]