Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone inhibits and redistributes vesicular monoamine transporter 2 via nitration in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells.
Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;74(4):933-40
Authors: Watabe M, Nakaki T
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Long-term systemic mitochondrial complex I inhibition by rotenone induces selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in rats. We have reported dopamine redistribution from vesicles to the cytosol to play a crucial role in selective dopaminergic cell apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated how rotenone causes dopamine redistribution to the cytosol using an in vitro model of human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Rotenone stimulated nitration of the tyrosine residues of intracellular proteins. The inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase or reactive oxygen species decreased the amount of nitrotyrosine and attenuated rotenone-induced apoptosis. When we examined the intracellular localization of dopamine immunocytochemically using anti-dopamine/vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) antibodies and quantitatively using high-performance liquid chromatography, inhibiting nitration was found to suppress rotenone-induced dopamine redistribution from vesicles to the cytosol. We demonstrated rotenone to nitrate tyrosine residues of VMAT2 using an immunocytochemical method with anti-nitrotyrosine antibodies and biochemically with immunoprecipitation experiments. Rotenone inhibited the VMAT2 activity responsible for the uptake of dopamine into vesicles, and this inhibition was reversed by inhibiting nitration. Moreover, rotenone induced the accumulation of aggregate-like formations in the stained image of VMAT2, which was reversed by inhibiting nitration. Our findings demonstrate that nitration of the tyrosine residues of VMAT2 by rotenone leads to both functional inhibition and accumulation of aggregate-like formations of VMAT2 and consequently to the redistribution of dopamine to the cytosol and apoptosis of dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells.
PMID: 18599602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]