The mechanisms of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis induced by norsalsolinol, an endogenous tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative associated with Parkinson's disease.
J Neurochem. 2008 Oct 8;
Authors: Kobayashi H, Fukuhara K, Tada-Oikawa S, Yada Y, Hiraku Y, Murata M, Oikawa S
Tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives (TIQs) are putative neurotoxins that may contribute to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) . One TIQ, norsalsolinol (NorSAL), is present in dopamine-rich areas of human brain, including the substantia nigra. Here, we demonstrate that NorSAL reduces cell viability and induces apoptosis via cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation and apoptosis induction were all inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Thus, reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to apoptosis induced by NorSAL. Treatment with NorSAL also increased levels of oxidative damage to DNA, a stimulus for apoptosis, in SH-SY5Y. To clarify the mechanism of intracellular DNA damage, we examined the DNA damage caused by NorSAL using (32)P-5'-end-labeled isolated DNA fragments. NorSAL induced DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II). Catalase and bathocuproine, a Cu(I) chelator, inhibited this DNA damage, suggesting that ROS, such as the Cu(I)-hydroperoxo complex derived from the reaction of H(2)O(2) with Cu(I), promote DNA damage by NorSAL. In summary, NorSAL-generated ROS induced oxidative DNA damage, which led to caspase-dependent apoptosis in neuronal cells.
PMID: 19012744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]