Plasma midkine level is a prognostic factor for human neuroblastoma.
Cancer Sci. 2008 Oct;99(10):2070-2074
Authors: Ikematsu S, Nakagawara A, Nakamura Y, Ohira M, Shinjo M, Kishida S, Kadomatsu K
Neuroblastoma is the third-most-common solid tumor of childhood. To date, no reliable blood marker for neuroblastoma has been established. The growth factor midkine is highly expressed in human carcinomas and its knockdown leads to tumor growth suppression in animal models. The present study evaluated the plasma midkine level in human neuroblastoma patients. Plasma samples were obtained from patients found through mass screening, as well as from sporadic neuroblastoma patients. The total number of cases examined was 756. Among them, prognostic information was available for 175 sporadic cases and 287 mass-screening cases. Midkine levels were significantly higher in neuroblastoma patients, including both mass-screening cases and sporadic cases, than in non-tumor controls (P < 0.0001). The midkine level was significantly correlated with the statuses of MYCN amplification, TRKA expression, ploidy, stage and age (P < 0.0001, < 0.0001, = 0.004, < 0.0001 and < 0.0001, respectively), which are known prognostic factors for neuroblastoma. There was a striking correlation between high plasma midkine level and poor prognosis (P < 0.0001). Within sporadic cases, the midkine level was also strikingly higher than in non-tumor controls (P < 0.0001), and correlated with the statuses of MYCN amplification and stage (P = 0.0005 and = 0.003, respectively). There was a significant correlation between high plasma midkine level and poor prognosis (P = 0.04). Taken together, the present data indicate that plasma midkine level is a prognostic factor for human neuroblastoma. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 2070-2074).
PMID: 19016768 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]