[Clinicopathologic study of sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma and its contrast with olfactory neuroblastoma]


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11-28-08 08:24 AM
[Clinicopathologic study of sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma and its contrast with olfactory neuroblastoma]
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[Clinicopathologic study of sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma and its contrast with olfactory neuroblastoma]

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2008 Jul;37(7):458-64

Authors: Li X, Liu HG, Xie XJ, Han YD, Li M

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) and olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), and to discuss the histogenesis and possible relationship between SNTCS and ONB. METHODS: Seven cases of SNTCS and 34 cases of ONB were retrieved from the pathological archives together with one case each of malignant teratoma and immature embryonic tissue at 8 weeks were collected from Beijing Tongren Hospital. The clinicopathologic features were analyzed and immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin sections. RESULTS: Six of the SNTCS patients were male and one was female. The patients age range was 25 to 69 years (mean age 46). Four cases were initial presentation and three were recurrences. Histologically, the tumor shows multiple tissue components derived from three germ layers. There were mixture of teratoma-like tissue and carcinosarcoma. The components include fetal clear cell squamous epithelium derived from ectoderm. Glandular and tubular structures and ciliated columnar epithelium derived from endoderm. Fibroblasts, striated muscle, smooth muscle, cartilage and osteoid matrix derived from mesoderm. The carcinoma component exhibited mostly adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the sarcoma component mostly exhibited rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. In addition, carcinoid, and primitive mesenchymal tissue and the ONB component were also seen. The morphological characteristics of SNTCS comprised fetal clear cell squamous epithelium, carcinosarcoma and the ONB component. By immunohistochemistry, the epithelial component and cells with epithelium differentiation were positive for cytokeratin (pan) and EMA. The ONB component was positive for Syn, NSE, CD99, NF and CgA to different degrees. Neurofibril bundles were positive for S-100, and Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes expressed cytokeratin (pan) and EMA. The spindle cells expressed vimentin, SMA, desmin, myosin and myoglobin. The primitive mesenchymal tissue expressed vimentin, and the mucoid materials and glycogen were positive for PAS. GFAP was negative in all cases. The 34 cases of ONB, included 18 men and 16 women, the age ranged from 12 to 72 years (mean 42.8 years). Microscopically, the tumor shows epithelial nests, net of angioma-like fibrous connective tissues, small round and spindle cells, glandular, squamous-like cells, and cells of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation, Homer-Wright and Flexner rosette, bundles of neurofibrils, etc. NSE and CgA were expressed in small cells. S-100 protein was positive in the areas of bunches of neurofibril. Cytokeratin (pan) was positive in epithelial cells. Myoglobin was positive in the cells of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. The single case of immature malignant teratoma exhibited primitive nerve tissue, but fetal clear cell squamous epithelium was not found. In the immature embryonic tissue, rudimentary organs were formed, with fetal clear cell squamous epithelium lining present on the nasal and oral cavities surface. CONCLUSIONS: SNTCS is a rare and aggressive malignant neoplasm. Most of ONB are low-grade malignant tumors. Morphological differences are the most important basis to make differentiate SNTCS from ONB. As SNTCS may demonstrate a multiplicity of structures and pleomorphism, inadequate sampling at biopsy, therefore, may lead to errors in diagnosis. No evidence show that SNTCS are derived from germ cells and sinonasal teratoid carcinosarcoma may be a more proper name. SNTCS probably arises from primitive totipotential cells of olfactory/sinonasal membrane, and the relationship between SNTCS and ONB needs further study.

PMID: 19035117 [PubMed - in process]