Expressional levels of Protocadherin-alpha transcripts are decreased by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay with frameshift mutations and by high DNA methylation in their promoter regions.
Gene. 2008 Nov 6;
Authors: Kaneko R, Kawaguchi M, Toyama T, Taguchi Y, Yagi T
The mouse protocadherin (Pcdh) clusters, Pcdh-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, are located on chromosome 18. Many polymorphic variations are found in the Pcdh-alpha genes in wild-derived and laboratory mouse strains. In comparing the expression levels of Pcdh-alpha isoforms among several strains, we observed lower expression levels of Pcdh-alpha9 in BLG2 and BFM/2, and of Pcdh-alpha8 in C57BL/6 (B6) than in the other strains. For Pcdh-alpha8, high DNA methylation (72.7%) in the promoter region was found only in B6, whereas 36.4-44.3% methylation was seen in the other strains. On the other hand, the Pcdh-alpha9 DNA-methylation levels were similar (23.6-36.3%) among the strains regardless of the difference in expression levels. Interestingly, however, the Pcdh-alpha9 variable exon in both BLG2 and BFM/2 included a premature termination codon (PTC) generated by a nucleotide deletion or insertion. Treatment with emetine, a potent inhibitor of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), increased the expression level of Pcdh-alpha9 from the BLG2-Pcdh-alpha locus. These data indicate that the transcription levels of mature Pcdh-alpha mRNAs are decreased by the DNA-methylation state of the Pcdh-alpha promoter regions and by the NMD pathway during RNA maturation. And we correct some previous data on Sugino, H., Toyama, T., Taguchi, Y., Esumi, S., Miyazaki, M., Yagi, T., (2004) Negative and positive effects of an IAP-LTR on nearby Pcdaalpha gene expression in the central nervous system and neuroblastoma cell lines, Gene 337 91-103.
PMID: 19038318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]