Reduced risk of secondary leukemia with fewer cycles of dose-intensive induction chemotherapy in patients with neuroblastoma.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Jan 15;
Authors: Kushner BH, Kramer K, Modak S, Qin LX, Yataghena K, Jhanwar SC, Cheung NK
BACKGROUND: We report a prospective study of secondary leukemia (SL)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in neuroblastoma (NB) patients treated with >/=5 cycles of dose-intensive chemotherapy. PROCEDURE: NB patients received induction with high-dose cyclophosphamide (4,200 mg/m(2))-doxorubicin (75 mg/m(2))-vincristine (cycles 1, 2, 4, 6, 8), and high-dose cisplatin (200 mg/m(2))-etoposide (600 mg/m(2)) (cycles 3, 5, 7). Bone marrow was examined every 1-3 months for >/=36 months, with inclusion of extensive chromosomal studies 1-3 months post-induction and 1-2x/year thereafter. RESULTS: One hundred eight four patients received 5 (n = 76), 6 (n = 45), 7 (n = 59), or 8 (n = 4) cycles. Eight patients developed SL/MDS (only one each in the 5- and 6-cycle groups), at 12-50 months, including two cases detected in surveillance studies. Among 108 patients who received >/=6 cycles, the 5-year cumulative incidence was 7.1% (95% CI: 2%, 12.2%), versus 0% among 54 patients who received 5 cycles without maintenance oral etoposide. Five-year cumulative incidences were 1.46%, 2.28%, and 8.47% among patients in the 5-, 6-, and 7-cycle groups, with fewer cycles having a significantly lower risk (P = 0.048). There was no significant association of risk with potentially leukemogenic consolidative treatments (targeted radiotherapy, myeloablative therapy, and oral etoposide). CONCLUSIONS: Reducing the number of dose-intensive cycles significantly decreases the risk of SL/MDS, yielding 5-year rates matching the low range (0.4-2.2%) reported for moderate-dose combination chemotherapy regimens used against other pediatric solid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMID: 19148951 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]