Phase I Trial of Oral Irinotecan and Temozolomide for Children With Relapsed High-Risk Neuroblastoma: A New Approach to Neuroblastoma Therapy Consortium Study.
J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jan 26;
Authors: Wagner LM, Villablanca JG, Stewart CF, Crews KR, Groshen S, Reynolds CP, Park JR, Maris JM, Hawkins RA, Daldrup-Link HE, Jackson HA, Matthay KK
PURPOSE: Irinotecan and temozolomide have single-agent activity and schedule-dependent synergy against neuroblastoma. Because protracted administration of intravenous irinotecan is costly and inconvenient, we sought to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of oral irinotecan combined with temozolomide in children with recurrent/resistant high-risk neuroblastoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received oral temozolomide on days 1 through 5 combined with oral irinotecan on days 1 through 5 and 8 through 12 in 3-week courses. Daily oral cefixime was used to reduce irinotecan-associated diarrhea. RESULTS: Fourteen assessable patients received 75 courses. Because neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were initially dose-limiting, temozolomide was reduced from 100 to 75 mg/m(2)/d for subsequent patients. Irinotecan was then escalated from 30 to 60 mg/m(2)/d. First-course grade 3 diarrhea was dose-limiting in one of six patients treated at the irinotecan MTD of 60 mg/m(2)/d. Other toxicities were mild and reversible. The median SN-38 lactone area under the plasma concentration versus time curve at this dose was 72 ng . hr/mL. One patient with bulky soft tissue disease had a complete response through six courses. Six additional patients received a median of seven courses (range, three to 22 courses) before progression. CONCLUSION: This all-oral regimen was feasible and well tolerated in heavily pretreated children with resistant neuroblastoma, and seven (50%) of 14 assessable patients had response or disease stabilization for three or more courses in this phase I trial. SN-38 lactone exposures were similar to those reported with protracted intravenous irinotecan. The dosages recommended for further study in this patient population are temozolomide 75 mg/m(2)/d plus irinotecan 60 mg/m(2)/d when given with cefixime.
PMID: 19171709 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]