Acrebol, a novel toxic peptaibol produced by an Acremonium exuviarum indoor isolate.
J Appl Microbiol. 2009 Jan 21;
Authors: Andersson MA, Mikkola R, Raulio M, Kredics L, Maijala P, Salkinoja-Salonen MS
Abstract Aims: To identify a toxin and its producer isolated from woody material in a building where the occupants experienced serious ill health symptoms. Methods and Results: Hyphal extracts of an indoor fungus, identified as the cycloheximide-tolerant species Acremonium exuviarum, inhibited motility of boar spermatozoa (EC(50) 5 +/- 2 mug of crude solids ml(-1)) and caused cytolysis of murine neuroblastoma cells (MNA) and feline fetal lung cells (FL). The responsible substances were purified and identified as two structurally similar, heat-stable, novel, toxic peptaibols, 1726 Da and 1740 Da, respectively, with amino acid sequences of Acetyl-Phe-Iva/Val-Gln-Aib-Ile-Thr-Leu-Aib-Pro-Aib-Gln-Pro-Aib-(X-X-X)-SerOH and Acetyl-Phe-Iva/Val-Gln-Aib-Ile-Thr-Leu-Val-Pro-Aib-Gln-Pro-Aib-(X-X-X)-SerOH. Purified acrebol inhibited motility of boar sperm, depleted ATP half-content in 1 day (EC(50) of 0.1 mug ml(-1), 60 nmol l(-1)) depolarised the mitochondria after 2 days, but did not affect the cellular content in NADH. This indicates mitochondrial toxicity. Plate-grown biomass of A. exuviarum BMB4 contained 0.1-1% (w/w) of acrebol, depending on the culture medium. Conclusions: Acrebol paralysed the energy generation of mammalian cells suggesting that mitochondria were its target of action. Significance and Impact of the Study: Acremonium exuviarum, as an indoor fungus, is potentially hazardous to health because of the toxic peptaibols that it produces.
PMID: 19191958 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]