In 2008 an article was published on GCSF and neuroblastoma in the Journal Of Pediatric Surgery. GCSF, or Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor, is often administered to neuroblastoma patients in the hope of restoring neutrophil levels after myeloablative chemotherapy. The article found that neuroblastoma cell lines expressed a GCSF receptor. The study also claimed that GCSF greatly increseased the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells. For obvious reasons, many were concerned about the use of GCSF. Dr. Heidi Russell fromTexas Children's Cancer Center Center presented information regarding this study, GCSF, and its implications in treatment forneuroblastoma. This presentation was made at the Children'sNeuroblastoma Cancer Foundation Neuroblastoma Conference on July 19,2008.