Retinoids induce differentiation and downregulate telomerase activity and N-Myc to increase sensitivity to flavonoids for apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
Int J Oncol. 2009 Mar;34(3):757-65
Authors: Das A, Banik NL, Ray SK
Human malignant neuroblastoma is characterized by poor differentiation and uncontrolled proliferation of immature neuroblasts. Retinoids such as all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-CRA), and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) at low doses are capable of inducing differentiation, while flavonoids such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and genistein (GST) at relatively high dose can induce apoptosis. We used combination of retinoid and flavonoid for controlling growth of malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Cells were treated with a retinoid (1 microM ATRA, 1 microM 13-CRA, or 0.5 microM 4-HPR) for 7 days and then with a flavonoid (25 microM EGCG or 25 microM GST) for 24 h. Treatment of cells with a low dose of a retinoid for 7 days induced neuronal differentiation with downregulation of telomerase activity and N-Myc but overexpression of neurofilament protein (NFP) and subsequent treatment with a relatively high dose of a flavonoid for 24 h increased apoptosis in the differentiated cells. Besides, retinoids reduced the levels of inflammatory and angiogenic factors. Apoptosis was associated with increases in intracellular free [Ca2+], Bax expression, cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activities of calpain and caspases. Decreases in expression of calpastatin (endogenous calpain inhibitor) and baculovirus inhibitor-of-apoptosis repeat containing (BIRC) proteins (endogenous caspase inhibitors) favored apoptosis. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with EGCG activated caspase-8, indicating induction of the receptor-mediated pathway of apoptosis. Based on our observation, we conclude that combination of a retinoid and a flavonoid worked synergistically for controlling the malignant growth of human neuroblastoma cells.
PMID: 19212680 [PubMed - in process]