The PA-TM-RING protein RING finger protein 13 is an endosomal integral membrane E3 ubiquitin ligase whose RING finger domain is released to the cytoplasm by proteolysis.
FEBS J. 2009 Apr;276(7):1860-77
Authors: Bocock JP, Carmicle S, Chhotani S, Ruffolo MR, Chu H, Erickson AH
PA-TM-RING proteins have an N-terminal protease-associated domain, a structure found in numerous proteases and implicated in protein binding, and C-terminal RING finger and PEST domains. Homologous proteins include GRAIL (gene related to anergy in leukocytes), which controls T-cell anergy, and AtRMR1 (receptor homology region-transmembrane domain-RING-H2 motif protein), a plant protein storage vacuole sorting receptor. Another family member, chicken RING zinc finger (C-RZF), was identified as being upregulated in embryonic chicken brain cells grown in the presence of tenascin-C. Despite algorithm predictions that the cDNA encodes a signal peptide and transmembrane domain, the protein was found in the nucleus. We showed that RING finger protein 13 (RNF13), the murine homolog of C-RZF, is a type I integral membrane protein localized in the endosomal/lysosomal system. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, we demonstrated that expression of RNF13 is increased in adult relative to embryonic mouse tissues and is upregulated in B35 neuroblastoma cells stimulated to undergo neurite outgrowth. We found that RNF13 is very labile, being subject to extensive proteolysis that releases both the protein-associated domain and the RING domain from the membrane. By analyzing microsomes, we showed that the ectodomain is shed into the lumen of vesicles, whereas the C-terminal half, which possesses the RING finger, is released to the cytoplasm. This C-terminal fragment of RNF13 has the ability to mediate ubiquitination. Proteolytic release of RNF13 from a membrane anchor thus provides unique spatial and temporal regulation that has not been previously described for an endosomal E3 ubiquitin ligase.
PMID: 19292867 [PubMed - in process]