Tacrine-Melatonin Hybrids as Multifunctional Agents for Alzheimer's Disease, with Cholinergic, Antioxidant, and Neuroprotective Properties.
ChemMedChem. 2009 Mar 23;
Authors: Fernández-Bachiller MI, Pérez C, Campillo NE, Páez JA, González-Muñoz GC, Usán P, García-Palomero E, López MG, Villarroya M, García AG, Martínez A, Rodríguez-Franco MI
Tacrine-melatonin hybrids were designed and synthesized as new multifunctional drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease. These compounds may simultaneously palliate intellectual deficits and protect the brain against both beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide and oxidative stress. They show improved cholinergic and antioxidant properties, and are more potent and selective inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) than tacrine. They also capture free radicals better than melatonin. Molecular modeling studies show that these hybrids target both the catalytic active site (CAS) and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. At sub-micromolar concentrations they efficiently displace the binding of propidium iodide from the PAS and could thus inhibit Abeta peptide aggregation promoted by AChE. Moreover, they also inhibit Abeta self-aggregation and display neuroprotective properties in a human neuroblastoma line against cell death induced by various toxic insults, such as Abeta(25-35), H(2)O(2), and rotenone. Finally, they exhibit low toxicity and may be able to penetrate the central nervous system according to an in vitro parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for the blood-brain barrier (PAMPA-BBB).
PMID: 19308922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]