Neuroprotective effect of cocoa flavonoids on in vitro oxidative stress.
Eur J Nutr. 2009 Feb;48(1):54-61
Authors: Ramiro-Puig E, Casadesús G, Lee HG, Zhu X, McShea A, Perry G, Pérez-Cano FJ, Smith MA, Castell M
BACKGROUND: Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids that, among other functions, can act as antioxidants. In living systems, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate an array of intracellular cascades, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), that are closely associated with cell death or survival pathways. AIM OF THE STUDY: To ascertain the role of a cocoa extract and its main flavonoid, (-)-epicatechin, in an in vitro model of oxidative stress induced in a neuronal cell line. METHODS: We analyzed ROS production by fluorometry (dichlorofluorescein assay), and activation of MAPK pathways including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-38, by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Cells incubated with cocoa extract or (-)-epicatechin, reduced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner, reaching 35% inhibition. pJNK and p38, involved in apoptosis, were down-modulated by cocoa extract and (-)-epicatechin with p38 inhibition reaching up to 70%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that cocoa extract and (-)-epicatechin may exert a neuroprotective action by reducing ROS production and modulating MAPK activation.
PMID: 19043659 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]