Identification of a thyroid hormone response element in the mouse Kruppel-like factor 9 gene to explain its postnatal expression in the brain.
Endocrinology. 2009 Apr 9;
Authors: Denver RJ, Williamson KE
Brain development is critically dependent on thyroid hormone (T3). Krüppel-like factor 9 (Klf9) is a T3 -inducible gene in developing rat brain, and several lines of evidence support that KLF9 plays a key role in neuronal morphogenesis. Here we extend our findings to the mouse, and demonstrate the presence of a functional T3 response element (T3RE) in the 5' flanking region of the mouse Klf9 gene. Klf9 mRNA is strongly induced in the mouse hippocampus and cerebellum in a developmental stage and T3-dependent manner. Computer analysis identified a near optimal direct repeat 4 (DR-4) T3RE 3.8 kb upstream of the Klf9 transcription start site, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that T3 receptor (TR)-retinoid X receptor heterodimers bound to the T3RE with high affinity. The T3RE acts as a strong positive response element in transfection assays using a minimal heterologous promoter. In the mouse neuroblastoma cell line N2a[TRbeta1], T3 caused a dose-dependent upregulation of Klf9 mRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) conducted with N2a[TRbeta1] cells showed that TRs associated with the Klf9 T3RE, and this association was promoted by T3. Treatment of N2a[TRbeta1] cells with T3 led to hyperacetylation of histones 3 and 4 at the T3RE site. Furthermore, TRs associated with the DR-4T3RE in postnatal day 4 mouse brain, and histone 4 acetylation was greater at this site compared with other regions of the Klf9 gene. Our study identifies a functional DR-4T3RE located in the mouse Klf9 gene to explain its regulation by T3 during mammalian brain development.
PMID: 19359381 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]