Different Mechanisms of NMDA-Mediated Protection Against Neuronal Apoptosis: A Stimuli-Dependent Effect.
Neurochem Res. 2009 May 22;
Authors: Jantas D, Lason W
The mechanisms of protective effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor stimulation on apoptosis of neurons at their early stage of development are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of NMDA on staurosporine (St)- and low-potassium (LP)-evoked apoptotic cell death in primary cerebellar granule cell (CGC) cultures at 7 days in vitro (DIV). We found that NMDA (200 muM) attenuated the St (0.5 muM)- and LP (5 mM KCl)-induced neuronal cell death in 7 but not 12 DIV CGC as confirmed by LDH release and MTT reduction assays. Moreover, NMDA attenuated St-and LP-evoked DNA fragmentation and cytosolic apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) protein level but not caspase-3 activation induced by both pro-apoptotic factors. Neuroprotective effects of NMDA on St-induced apoptosis in CGC were attenuated by inhibitors of ERK/MAPK-signaling, PD 98059 and U0126 but not by NMDA receptor antagonists, AP-5 (100 muM) and MK-801 (1 muM) or by inhibitors of PI3-K/Akt pathway (LY 294002 and wortmannin). In contrast to staurosporine model of apoptosis, AP-5 and MK-801 but not inhibitors of PI3-K/Akt and MAPK/ERK1/2 prevented the NMDA-mediated neuroprotection in LP-induced apoptosis of CGC. In separate experiments, we observed also the anti-apoptotic action of NMDA on St (0.5 muM)- and salsolinol (250 muM)-evoked cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells without its influence on caspase-3 activity, induced by these pro-apoptotic factors. These data indicate that neuroprotection evoked by NMDA in CGC strongly depends on used pro-apoptotic agent and could engage NMDA channel function or be connected with the activation of pro-survival MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway. It is also suggested that anti-apoptotic effects of NMDA is connected with inhibition of fragmentation of DNA via caspase-3-independent mechanism.
PMID: 19462233 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]