Clozapine protects PC-12 cells from death due to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide via a cell-type specific mechanism involving inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation.
Brain Res. 2009 Jun 3;
Authors: Magliaro BC, Saldanha CJ
Recent evidence suggests that some atypical antipsychotic drugs may protect against oxidative stress and consequent neurodegeneration by mechanisms that remain unclear. Using the neuron-like rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell line, Clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine were tested for their ability to protect against cell death due to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). These drugs demonstrated significant protection of PC-12 cells, as measured by both the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide (MTT) and Alamar Blue cell viability assays. However, neither viability assay detected a protective effect of Clozapine on human embryonic kidney (HEK293), rat primary cortical neurons, or human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) exposed to H(2)O(2) treatment. The mechanism of protection involves a PC-12 cell-specific differential response to H(2)O(2) treatment vs. the other cell lines. Pre-treatment with 250 uM or 125 uM diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor, unexpectedly showed protection of the PC-12 cells from H(2)O(2) treatment. Western blots revealed that Clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine, and DETC reduce the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) that is caused by H(2)O(2) exposure in PC-12 cells. In both HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells, H(2)O(2) exposure did not increase ERK phosphorylation over control, demonstrating a different response to H(2)O(2) vs. PC-12 cells, and explaining why Clozapine could not protect these cells. Also, U0126, a specific MEK inhibitor, was able to protect PC-12 cells from H(2)O(2) exposure, showing that inhibiting ERK phosphorylation is sufficient to provide protection. Cumulatively, these results indicate that Clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine, DETC, and U0126 protect PC-12 cells by blocking the cell-type specific H(2)O(2) induced increase in ERK phosphorylation.
PMID: 19501068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]